Bipolar Children and Teenagers
by Amy Otis, BSN, RN
Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teenagers
Bipolar disorder can occur in children and adolescents and has been
investigated by federally funded teams in children as young as age six. Although
once thought rare, caseloads of patients examined for federally funded studies
have shown that approximately seven percent of children seen at psychiatric
facilities fit bipolar disorder using research standards.
Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents
One of the biggest challenges has been to differentiate children with mania from
those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Both groups of children
present with irritability, hyperactivity and distractibility. These symptoms are
not useful for the diagnosis of mania because they also occur in ADHD. But,
elated mood, grandiose behaviors, flight of ideas, decreased need for sleep and
hypersexuality occur primarily in mania and are uncommon in ADHD. Below is a
brief description of how to recognize these mania-specific symptoms in children.
Elated children may laugh hysterically and act infectiously happy without any
reason at home, school or in church. If someone who did not know them saw their
behaviors, they would think the child was on his/her way to Disneyland. Parents
and teachers often see this as “Jim Carey-like” behaviors.
Grandiose behaviors are when children act as if the rules do not pertain to
them. For example, they believe they are so smart that they can tell the teacher
what to teach, tell other students what to learn and call the school principal
to complain about teachers they do not like. Some children are convinced that
they can do superhuman deeds (e.g., that they are Superman) without getting
seriously hurt, e.g. "flying" out of windows.
Flight of ideas is when children jump from topic to topic in rapid succession
when they talk and not just when a special event has happened.
Decreased need for sleep is manifested by children who sleep only four to six
hours and are not tired the next day. These children may stay up playing on the
computer and ordering things or rearranging furniture.
Hypersexuality can occur in children with mania without any evidence of physical
or sexual abuse. These children act flirtatious beyond their years, may try to
touch the private areas of adults (including teachers), and use explicit sexual
language. In addition, it is most common for children with mania to have
multiple cycles during the day from giddy, silly highs to morose, gloomy
suicidal depressions. It is very important to recognize these depressed cycles
because of the danger of suicide.
Treatments, Medications and Psychosocial Effective Therapies
At this time there are several ongoing studies of how to best treat children,
but until more scientific data is available clinicians are left using their best
judgment on how to manage using medications that have been effective in adults.
These are largely three main types of drugs -- Lithium, anticonvulsants (e.g.,
Depakote or other valproate products) and atypical neuroleptics (e.g.,
risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine).
Side Effects — Including Those That May Only Occur in Young People.
Side effects that are particularly troublesome and that are worse in children
include the following. Atypical neuroleptics (except aripiprazloe) are
associated with marked weight gain in many children. One day we hope to have
specific genetic tests that will tell us beforehand which people will gain
weight on these medications. But right now, it is trial and error. The dangers
of this weight gain include glucose problems that may include the onset of
diabetes and increased blood lipids that may worsen heart and stroke problems
later in life. In addition, these drugs can cause an illness called tardive
dyskinesia, which is irreversible, unsightly, repeated movements of the tongue
in and out of the mouth or cheek and some other movement abnormalities. Depakote
may also be associated with increased weight and possibly with a disease called
polycystic ovarian syndrome (POS). In some cases POS is associated with
infertility later in life. Lithium has been the market the longest and is the
only medication that has been shown to be effective against future episodes of
mania and of depression and of completed suicides. Some people who take lithium
over a long time will need a thyroid supplement and in rare cases may develop
serious kidney disease.
It is very important that children on these medications be monitored for the
development of serious side effects. Side effects need to be weighed against the
dangers of the manic-depressive illness itself.
At this time, with childhood and adolescent onset the disease regrettably
appears more severe and with a much longer road to recovery than is seen with
adults. While some adults may have episodes of mania or depression with better
functioning between episodes, children seem to have continuous illness over
months and years.
Impact on Educational Achievement
It is challenging to educate a child who is seriously too "high" or
too "low." Therefore educators need to be aware of the diagnosis and
make special arrangements.
Any talk about wanting to die, or asking why they were born or wishing they were
never born must be taken very seriously as even quite young children can hang
themselves in the shower, shoot themselves or complete suicide by other means.
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